The story

Division of the periods of history

Division of the periods of history



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History begins when man creates writing. This happened about 4,000 years ago BC.

From this date forward, we call Historical period or History. But to better understand history, it is often divided into ages:

Ages

Start

Ending

Old

4,000 BC (invention of writing)

476 AD (fall of the Roman Empire)

Average

476 (fall of the Roman Empire)

1453 (Taking of Constantinople)

Modern

1453 (Taking of Constantinople)

1789 (French Revolution)

Contemporary

1789 (French Revolution)

Old age

The Old Age is the first period of history. To study it more easily, it is divided into Eastern Antiquity and Western or Classical Antiquity.

Eastern antiquity is marked by the appearance of the first civilized peoples: Egyptians, Mesopotamians, Phoenicians, Hebrews.

These peoples were strongly influenced by their physical and geographical environment. In general, they had an economy based on agriculture and livestock, and used slave labor.

The Phoenicians, who had no favorable conditions for an agrarian economy, eventually developed shipping and trade.

The study of Western antiquity refers to two peoples: the Greeks and the Romans. This phase is marked by great commercial development, with the Mediterranean Sea as the main trade route.

Check out our Old Age material

Middle Ages

In this period of history we notice a great difference between the West and the East.

In the west, we highlight four basic factors of medieval life:

  • O Castle, which was the center of political life and the dwelling of the feudal lord;
  • O army, which demonstrates the main activity of the nobility, which was to war;
  • The Church, that took care of all the spiritual aspects of the community;
  • and finally in the foreground the rural workers that economically supported Europe in the Middle Ages. They were called servants.

In the east there were great empires:

  • Arabs: initially dominated the Arabian Peninsula and later, in search of fertile land, conquered part of the Asian territory, all of North Africa and, in Europe, the Iberian Peninsula.

From them we inherit, besides our numbering system, also several words from our vocabulary, such as: alcohol, algebra, lettuce, etc.

  • Byzantine Empire: its capital was called Constantinople, which today is the city of Istanbul. Its geographical situation favored the development and trade of oriental products. It was dominated by the Turks in 1453.

Check out our material about the Middle Ages

Modern age

This is an age of great importance in human history because:

  • men discovered many places on earth that they didn't even think existed. It was the time of the Great Navigations;
  • trade has developed a lot.

With the development of commerce, the social class of traders called bourgeoisie, strengthened.

Another important event of the Modern Age was the Rebirth, great movement of painters, sculptors, philosophers and scientists.

At this age there was also a division between Christians, thus emerging the Protestantism.

The kings became powerful. Many abused the power. Because of this, the people of a European country, France, revolted against the king. This movement took place in 1789 and is called French Revolution.

Check out our material on the Modern Age

Contemporary age

The Contemporary Age is the age we are living in. It begins with the French Revolution and comes to our day.

From the economic point of view, it has great development.

It was the age at which industry was born and with it two new social classes:

  • The industrial class: the bosses;
  • The working class: the employees.

Trade has developed too much worldwide. The cities were getting bigger and bigger. And scientists have made great discoveries.

In the Contemporary Age, the ambition of countries for economic domination eventually led to two major world wars:

  • The First World War (1914/1918), almost exclusively European;
  • The Second World War (1939/1945), involved countries from all continents.

Check out our Contemporary Age material